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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 62-70

A study on common aeroallergens in a coastal city of south india by skin prick test

Department of Respiratory Medicine, A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Abhishek Bali
Department of Respiratory Medicine, A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Kuntikana, Mangalore, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/japt.japt_13_22

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Introduction: Airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic respiratory diseases worldwide, they are present all around, suspended in the air we breathe, spanning different regions, invisible to the naked eye, while causing allergic respiratory flare-ups in susceptible individuals. Although present globally they have a unique distribution which depends on geographic and climatic factors. Hence, a select broad group of allergens cannot be accountable for causing allergic responses worldwide. It is therefore imperative to identify the offending allergens causing flare-ups in patients living in a particular region, to effectively tackle exacerbations. Objectives of Study: (1) To study the clinical profile of patients with rhinobronchial allergies, (2) To determine endemically common aeroallergens for patients with rhino bronchial allergies from Dakshina Kannada District, presenting at A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore, by means of skin prick test (SPT). Materials and Methods: A total of 170 patients with preexisting allergic airway diseases were included in the study over a duration of 12 months. These subjects were screened, history was taken, and then subjected to an SPT after acquiring an informed consent. A customized panel of 55 allergens was used in the test comprising dust/dust mite, animal, fungal, insect, and plant-based allergens. A wheal size of more than 3 mm was considered as a positive reaction and the findings were recorded. Results: This study included 97 male and 73 female patients, with the mean age of the patients being 33.7 years. The most common aeroallergen was found to be, Parthenium hysterophorus, followed by Dermatophagoides farine a dust mite, Typha angustata, Cyperus Rotundus, Mangifera indica, Ischaemum, and Prosopis juliflora. Cockroach, dog epithelia, and Aspergillus fumigatus were found to be most allergenic in each respective group, i.e., insect, animal, and fungal group. Conclusion: Our study showed predominantly pollen-based allergens from mainly invasive wild grasses and small plants to be causing allergic respiratory diseases in susceptible individuals, especially young adults, living in Dakshina Kannada District, Karnataka. Allergic respiratory diseases due to Dust mite D. Farine were found to cause allergic manifestation in mainly urban population included in the study. A. fumigatus, dog epithelia, and cockroach were found to be the most common antigens causing allergic reactions in each respective category.

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